who’s first ?

Source: Russianspaceweb

Circa 850: The Chinese use some form of gunpowder in making fireworks to celebrate religious festivals.

1232: The Chinese successfully withstand the siege of the town of Kai-fung-fu by the Mongols with the help of “arrows of flaming fire.” (Historians speculate that these true rockets became possible after the Chinese discovered how to distill organic saltpetre — an oxygen producing ingredient — to increase the rate of burning.)

1242: Roger Bacon, an English Franciscan monk, records a secret formula for “gunpowder”: saltpetre 41.2; charcoal 29.4; sulphur 29.4. To achieve a faster rate of burning, Bacon distills saltpeter — the oxygen producing ingredient. The original formula apparently came from China.

1280: Al-Hasan al-Rammah, a Syrian military historian, describes rockets (Chinese arrows) and recipes for making gunpowder in “The Book of Fighting on Horseback and With War Engines.”

1288: Arabs use rockets during the seige of Valencia, Spain. (293)

1379: Gunpowder rockets are used in the siege of Chioggia, near Venice, Italy.

1516: The use of rockets near the Ukrainian city of Belgorod is recorded. (2)

1657: Cyrano de Bergerac publishes Histoire Comiquie Contenant les Etats et Empires de la Lune.

1675: The first appearance of rockets in the Russian city of Ustuyg. (2)

1687: Isaac Newton postulates the Laws of Motion, including his third law which states that “for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” It becomes the main theoretical principle of jet propulsion.

1680s: The “Rocket Enterprise” (Raketnoe Zavedenie) is founded in Moscow.

1711: Peter the Great founds the Arsenal artillery enterprise in St. Petersburg, which produced rocket devices as early as 1732. (79)

1770: Capt. Thomas Desaguliers examines rockets brought from India in the Royal Laboratory, Woolwich, England, but fails to reproduce reported range or accuracy. (Some would not even lift from their stands)

1780s: Indian ruler Hyder Ali, Prince of Mysore, uses iron-cased rockets with 8-10-feet (2.4 – 3-meters) balancing sticks against troops of the East India Company. The rockets with a weight of 2.7 – 5.4 kilograms have a range of 2.4 kilometers.


19th century

1804: Colonel William Congreve provides specifications for the manufacturing of large rockets at Woolwich, England. Within a year, he produces a 10.9-kilogram rocket with a 1,830-meter range. Later, he develops a 14.5-kilogram iron-cased rockets (107 centimeters long and 10-centimeters in diameter). To increase the range, Congreve creates a faster-burning powder.

1806 Oct. 8: 18 British rocket-carrying boats bombard Boulogne (France) with Congreve missiles during the Napoleonic War. Most missiles overshoot the French battleships, instead starting fires in the coastal town.

1807 Sept. 2-7: British rocket boats attack Copenhagen, Denmark, initiating big fires in the city.

1813: The British Royal Military Academy in Woolwich publishes “A Treatise on the Motion of Rockets” by William Moore. The work includes a mathematical description of rocket trajectories, including their movement in air and in vacuum.

1814 Sept. 13-14: The British navy fires Congreve rockets against besieged Fort McHenry, Baltimore, during the War of 1812. The events inspire Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner, which became the American national anthem. The song mentions “the rockets’ red glare.”

1828-29: The Russian Army uses Zasyadko rockets during the Russo-Turkish War.

1840: In England, William Hale, develops spin stabilized rockets, by placing three curved metal vanes in the rocket exhaust. The devices were employed during the Mexican War (1846-48), during the Crimean War (1853-56), in Hungary, Italy, Prussia, and during the American Civil War (1861-65).

1853-56: Russian ships are equipped with rockets during the Crimean War.

1865: Jules Verne’s science fiction novel De la Terre à la Lune (“From the Earth to the Moon”) is published, predicting many aspects of space flight.

1881: While waiting to be executed for his part in the plot to assassinate Czar Alexander II, Nikolai Kibalchich sketches and describes a manned flight vehicle propelled by a solid-fuel engine.

1890: In Germany, Hermann Ganswindt proposes a reaction-powered spacecraft propelled by dynamite charges


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